St. Wolfgang's Church, also known as the Sheepherder's Church, is located behind the Klingen Gate. Built in the late Gothic style, it was erected between 1475 and 1492 by the brotherhood of shepherds. The church has only a small steeple, not the usual high Gothic spire. The Sentries House is now used as the shepherds' dance chamber.
The church is part of the fortress at the Klingen Gate; it has underground casements and a rampart in the loft; there is a dungeon underneath the church.
If you walk through the arch shown in the photo above, you will see that the wall of the church is part of the wall around the city. Outside the wall, you can look down into the Tauber Valley 80 meters below the city and see the Topplerschlöschen (Toppler's Little Castle) which was built by the famous mayor of the town, Heinrich Toppler in 1388. An alley on the right leads down to the village of Detwang, which dates back to the year 960.
According to a pamphlet that I was given at the church, sheep farming and the wool trade played a central role in the economy of Medieval Rothenburg. The shepherds worshiped at a shrine to St. Wolfgang, their patron saint, in front of the church. Members of the Brotherhood of Shepherds held their service of thanksgiving every year on the Tuesday after St. Bartholomew's Day in St. Wolfgang's Church. After the service, the shepherds went to the "Lamb Inn" on the Market Place to eat, drink and dance. Today, this annual event is re-enacted on the Market Place by local citizens wearing costumes.